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Myth-Busting Plant-based Nutrition: What You Really Need to Know

All throughout the health and wellness world, you're going to see trends popping up. New theories, diets, recommendations, etc. At one point in time, plant-based eating was one of those! And today, as a health and wellness coach who has embraced a plant-based lifestyle for the past five years, I've witnessed firsthand the remarkable surge in the popularity of plant-based lifestyles.

The roots of plant-based eating, while modern in their current form, trace back centuries, drawing on principles of non-harm and respect for all living beings. However, it wasn't until the 20th century that veganism began to crystallize as a distinct movement. The term 'vegan' was coined in 1944 by Donald Watson, who, along with a group of like-minded individuals, formed the Vegan Society in the UK. Initially, this movement was primarily ethical, focused on animal rights and welfare. But over the years, as more research emerged, the health benefits of a plant-based diet began to take center stage.

The 21st century has seen a remarkable shift. What was once considered a diet of restriction is now viewed as one of abundance. A convergence of factors has propelled this lifestyle into the limelight. High-profile endorsements, rising awareness of the environmental impact of meat production, and a growing body of scientific research highlighting the health benefits of a plant-based diet have all played a part.

Today's exploration is not just about challenging misconceptions but also about providing a comprehensive, data-backed perspective on nutrition in general. As you arm yourself with this knowledge, you can make the best choices that work for YOU and your life. Let's peel back the layers of history and science to reveal the true essence of a diet that's more than just a trend – it's become a sustainable choice for health and the planet!

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When it comes to nourishing our bodies, whether we choose a plant-based or meat-based diet, the fundamental nutritional requirements remain the same. Our bodies need a balanced mix of macronutrients and micronutrients to function optimally. This section will briefly outline these essential nutrients, laying the groundwork for understanding how both plant-based and meat-based diets can meet these requirements.

1. Macronutrients: The big three

  • Proteins: Proteins, comprising essential amino acids, are vital for various bodily functions. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein is about 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day (Institute of Medicine). Proteins are not only found in animal products but also in a variety of plant foods, like legumes and grains.

  • Fats: Fats are necessary for brain health, energy, and vitamin absorption. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that 20-35% of daily calories should come from fat, emphasizing the importance of unsaturated fats found in both plant and animal sources.

  • Carbohydrates: As the primary energy source, carbohydrates should constitute 45-65% of total daily calories, according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. They are abundant in both plant-based (fruits, vegetables, grains) and meat-based diets.

2. Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals

  • Essential for a range of bodily functions, both plant-based and meat-based diets can provide necessary vitamins and minerals. However, the National Institutes of Health notes that certain nutrients, like Vitamin B12, are primarily found in animal products, necessitating supplementation in a plant-based diet.

  • Minerals like iron and calcium are present in both diets but may require more attention in plant-based eating. For instance, plant-based iron (non-heme iron) is less easily absorbed than the heme iron found in meat, as per the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

3. The Role of Fiber and Water

  • Fiber: The American Heart Association recommends a dietary fiber intake of 25 to 30 grams a day from food, yet the average American adult only eats about 15 grams. Plant-based diets are typically rich in fiber, which is beneficial for digestive health.

  • Water: Essential for life, the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine recommends a daily fluid intake of about 3.7 liters for men and 2.7 liters for women, highlighting that all sources of hydration are important, regardless of diet.


Nutrient Sources in Plant-Based Diets

A well-planned plant-based diet is not only capable of meeting our nutritional needs but can also offer a variety of health benefits. Understanding the sources of essential nutrients in plant-based foods is key to achieving a balanced and nutritious diet.

1. Plant-Based Proteins: Building Blocks for the Body

  • Contrary to common misconceptions, plant-based diets can provide ample protein. Foods like legumes (beans, lentils, chickpeas), tofu, tempeh, and quinoa are excellent protein sources. For instance, a cup of cooked lentils contains about 18 grams of protein (USDA National Nutrient Database).

  • Including a variety of these protein sources is important to ensure a complete amino acid profile.

2. Healthy Fats: Essential for Well-being

  • Plant-based diets can be rich in healthy fats, crucial for brain health and hormone production. Avocados, nuts (like almonds and walnuts), and seeds (such as flaxseeds and chia seeds) are great sources. A study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition found that diets high in nuts and seeds were associated with lower levels of inflammation.

  • These foods also provide essential omega-3 fatty acids, particularly ALA (alpha-linolenic acid), which the body can partially convert to the active forms of omega-3 like EPA and DHA.

3. Carbohydrates: Energy-Providing Nutrients

  • Whole grains (like brown rice and whole wheat), starchy vegetables (such as sweet potatoes), and fruits are primary carbohydrate sources in a vegan diet. They also offer dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals.

  • The fiber in these foods not only aids digestion but also helps in regulating blood sugar levels. According to the American Heart Association, high-fiber foods can improve heart health.

4. Vitamins and Minerals: A Spectrum of Nutrients

  • A varied diet can provide a wide range of vitamins and minerals. Leafy greens (like spinach and kale) are rich in iron, calcium, and vitamins A, C, and K. Fortified plant milks and cereals can provide B vitamins, including B12, and vitamin D.

  • Nutritional yeast is a popular vegan food product that is often fortified with B12, a nutrient predominantly found in animal products. The National Institutes of Health recommends that adults consume 2.4 micrograms of vitamin B12 per day, which can be easily met with fortified foods or supplements.

5. The Importance of Variety

  • Emphasize the importance of incorporating a variety of foods in a vegan diet to ensure nutritional adequacy. Each plant food has a unique nutrient profile, and consuming a wide range ensures that one gets all the necessary nutrients.


Nutrient Sources in Meat-Based Diets

A traditional meat-based diet, characterized by its inclusion of meats, dairy, and eggs, is often prized for its rich nutrient content. Here, we delve into the key nutritional components of such diets, supported by data and sources.

1. Protein: A Key Component

  • Meat is a significant source of high-quality, complete protein. For example, 100 grams of cooked chicken breast contains about 31 grams of protein (USDA FoodData Central).

  • Dairy products and eggs also contribute substantial amounts of protein. A single large egg offers about 6 grams of protein (USDA FoodData Central).

2. B Vitamins: Essential for Energy Production

  • Meat, particularly red meat, is an excellent source of B vitamins. A 100-gram serving of cooked beef provides 6.2 micrograms of vitamin B12, crucial for nerve function and the production of DNA and red blood cells (National Institutes of Health).

  • Dairy and eggs are also rich in B vitamins, particularly B2 (riboflavin) and B5 (pantothenic acid).

3. Iron: Vital for Blood Health

  • Meat contains heme iron, which the body absorbs more efficiently than non-heme iron found in plants. The bioavailability of heme iron from meat is about 15-35%, compared to 2-20% from plant sources (National Institutes of Health).

4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Important for Heart Health

  • Fish such as salmon and sardines are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly EPA and DHA. The American Heart Association recommends eating two servings of fish per week, particularly fatty fish, to gain these heart health benefits.

5. The Role of Fruits, Vegetables, and Grains

  • Fruits, vegetables, and grains play a crucial role in a meat-based diet, providing fiber, vitamins, and minerals. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that adults consume 2 cups of fruit and 2.5 to 3 cups of vegetables per day.

  • These plant foods contribute to the overall nutritional balance, offering nutrients like dietary fiber and vitamin C, which are essential for health maintenance and disease prevention.


Both plant-based and meat-based diets can meet nutritional needs when properly planned. However, the source and bioavailability of nutrients differ between the two. Understanding these differences is crucial for ensuring a balanced and nutritious diet, regardless of dietary preference. Now that we've navigated the nutritional landscape of both plant-based and meat-based diets, let's debunk some common myths about plant-based nutrition.

Myth #1: Protein Deficiency in a Plant-based Diet

  • The Myth: A common misconception is that vegan diets can't provide enough protein.

  • The Reality: Plant-based protein sources like legumes, grains, and soy products can adequately meet protein needs. For instance, 100 grams of tofu contains about 8 grams of protein (USDA FoodData Central).

  • Protein Requirements: The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight (Institute of Medicine). A balanced vegan diet can easily meet this requirement.

Myth #2: Lack of Iron and Vitamin B12 in Vegan Diets

  • Iron: While plant-based diets only contain non-heme iron, its absorption can be enhanced by consuming vitamin C-rich foods. Fortified cereals and leafy greens are good sources.

  • Vitamin B12: This vitamin is not naturally found in plants. Vegans need to rely on fortified foods or supplements. The National Institutes of Health recommends 2.4 micrograms of B12 per day for adults, which can be met through supplementation.

Myth #3: Vegan Diets Are Not Suitable for Athletes

  • Energy & Strength: Plant-based diets can provide sufficient energy and nutrients for athletes. Several successful vegan athletes, like Venus Williams and Lewis Hamilton, exemplify this.

  • Nutritional Adequacy for Athletes: With careful planning, plant-based athletes can meet their higher protein and calorie needs. Plant-based protein powders and energy-dense foods play a role here.

Myth #4: Vegan Diets Are Expensive

  • Cost Comparison: Basic plant-based foods like grains, beans, and seasonal vegetables can be less expensive than meat and dairy products.

  • Budget Friendly Tips: Buying in bulk, choosing generic brands, and cooking at home can make a vegan diet quite affordable.

Health Benefits of Plant-Based Nutrition

  • Reduced Disease Risk: Studies have shown that vegan diets are associated with lower risks of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers (American Heart Association).

  • Comparative Health Risks: Heavy meat consumption, especially processed meats, has been linked to increased health risks, including heart disease and certain cancers (World Health Organization).

Environmental Impact: Plant-Based vs. Meat-Based Diets

  • Resource Use: Animal agriculture is more resource-intensive, requiring more land, water, and energy. For instance, producing 1kg of beef requires 15,000 liters of water, significantly more than plant-based foods (Water Footprint Network).

  • Carbon Footprint: Livestock farming contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, plant-based diets have a lower carbon footprint (FAO).


Your journey towards healthier, more informed dietary choices is a process of learning and growth. It's not about adhering to strict rules or achieving perfection; it's about making progress, gaining understanding, and embracing the journey with kindness towards yourself. Celebrate every new insight, quiet the doubts, and don't hesitate to seek support and knowledge when needed. Your path to understanding nutrition is full of discovery. You're not alone in this journey; we're all in this together, learning, growing, and supporting each other's wellness and health.

I hope this deep dive into vegan nutrition myths and facts has been enlightening! What are your thoughts? Did you discover something new, or are there aspects you're still curious about? Let's continue this conversation and grow together in our understanding of plant-based wellness.

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  • For nutritional content of various foods like tofu, chicken, lentils, and eggs.

  • For information on Vitamin B12 requirements, bioavailability of heme and non-heme iron, and omega-3 fatty acids.

  • For RDA of protein

  • For information on the bioavailability of iron.

  • For recommendations on dietary fiber intake and benefits of high-fiber foods.

  • For daily fluid intake recommendations.

  • For information on health benefits associated with nuts and seeds.

  • For percentages of daily calories from macronutrients.

  • For information on health risks associated with heavy meat consumption.

  • For data on water usage in meat vs. plant-based food production.

  • For information on the environmental impact of livestock farming.


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Steph Genco, plant-based wellness & nutrition coach for women.

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